Introduced in the Treaty of Amsterdam, Article 7 outlines that if a member persistently breaches the EU's founding principles (liberty, democracy, human rights and so forth, outlined in TEU Article 2) then the European Council can vote to suspend any rights of membership, such as voting and representation. The Netherlands Antillean guilder was supposed to be replaced by the, The full Schengen acquis applies to all Spanish territories, but there are border checks on departure from Ceuta and Melilla to Spain or other Schengen countries, because of specific arrangements for visa exemptions for Moroccan nationals resident in the provinces of. It shall respect their essential State functions, including ensuring the territorial integrity of the State, maintaining law and order and safeguarding national security. "The provisions of Part Four of the Treaty were applied to Surinam, by virtue of a Supplementary Act of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (. [55] All but 4 are ranked at the top 1.0 rating. This comes in two forms; a faster integrated core where some states forge ahead with a new project, and opt-outs where a few states are excused from normal integration. [38], Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba (collectively called Caribbean Netherlands) are "special municipalities" of the Netherlands proper. It became an outermost region, and thus part of the EU, on 1 January 2014.[12]. It is however supported by others, such as President Macron, to move forward in integration faster. [85] The monastery has certain rights to house monks from countries outside the EU. Upper houses are composed differently in different member states: it can be directly elected like the Polish senate; indirectly elected, for example, by regional legislatures like the Federal Council of Austria; or unelected, but representing certain interest groups like the National Council of Slovenia. Natives of the collectivities are European citizens owing to their French citizenship and elections to the European Parliament are held in the collectivities. [49], EU integration is not always symmetrical, with some states proceeding with integration ahead of hold-outs. [31][32], Similarly, each state is assigned seats in Parliament according to their population (smaller countries receiving more seats per inhabitant than the larger ones). The Luxembourgish language is not an official language of the European Union. The United Kingdom has two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, namely Akrotiri and Dhekelia. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol. monetary policy for the Member States whose currency is the, the conservation of marine biological resources under the, social policy, for the aspects defined in this Treaty, economic, social and territorial cohesion, common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty, development cooperation, humanitarian aid, the coordination of economic, employment and social policies, the protection and improvement of human health, This page was last edited on 1 April 2021, at 13:38. related portals: State of the Union Speeches by United States Presidents. [53] Inhabited villages located in the buffer zone are legally administered by the Republic of Cyprus but policed by UN peacekeepers. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. [50][51], There are several different forms closer integration both within and outside the EU's normal framework. However, French Algeria, Greenland and Saint-Barthélemy did cease being part of the EU (or its predecessor) in 1962, 1985, and 2012, respectively, due to status changes. 3.4): Overview of European Union countries, "Mixed village in Cyprus buffer zone looks to offer hope", German Wikipedia about Büsingen am Hochrhein, "CAMPIONE D'ITALIA - Italy in Switzerland ENCLAVES", Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties, Protocol 10 to the Treaty of Accession 2003, "COUNCIL DECISION of 10 June 2004 concerning the representation of the people of Cyprus in the European Parliament in case of a settlement of the Cyprus problem (2004/511/EC)", Protocol 3 to the Treaty of Accession 2003, "First Report on the implementation of the provisions of Protocol No 3 to the 2003 Act of Accession on the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus", "EURO ORDINANCE 2007 An Ordinance to provide for the adoption of the euro as legal tender in the Sovereign Base Areas and for related matters", "Declaration by Her Majesty's Government Regarding the Administration of the Sovereign Base Areas", Protocol relating to the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus, Council Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 of 29 April 2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol No 10 of the Act of Accession, Council Regulation (EC) No 293/2005 of 17 February 2005 amending Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol 10 to the Act of Accession as regards agriculture and facilities for persons crossing the line, "The Saimaa Canal - Finnish Transport Agency", "Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Paris, 18 April 1951)", Annex IV: Overseas countries and territories, Treaty establishing the European Community (consolidated version) - Text of the Treaty, Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Act ratifying the EAEC Treaty in the Netherlands, European Economic Community Treaty, Art 227, Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis - Final Act, Agreement on the European Economic Area - Protocol 40 on Svalbard, Declaration for activation of Protocol40 exclusion, "Foreign Minister says Cyprus not to join Schengen before 2010", Deal between Spain and UK plans to eliminate Gibraltar border checkpoint, "Information for Businesses/01 Customs and fiscal territories/index.jsp The customs and fiscal territories of the European Community", "0466en01.pdf Direct Trade Regulation proposal, not yet implemented", "Procedure File: 2006/2012(INI) - Legislative Observatory - European Parliament", "2002325EN.003301.html Treaty Establishing the European Community, part four", "Agreement between the European Community, of the one part, and the Government of Denmark and the Home Government of the Faroe Islands", "Treaty of Lisbon, Article 2, points 287 and 293", "summaries/economic and monetary affairs/institutional and economic framework/l25042 en.htm Agreements concerning the French territorial communities". [74] This protocol applied EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. Not part of the EU territory. [3] The status of an uninhabited territory, Clipperton, remains unclear since it is not explicitly mentioned in primary EU law and has a sui generis status at the national level.[4][d]. Summary for member states that do not have special-status territories, but do not participate in certain EU provisions as they are either not yet eligible or have an opt-out. Zimbabwe and Hong Kong are not listed in the annex. [66], State that is a participant in the treaties of the European Union (EU). Parliamentary structure in member states varies: there are 15 unicameral national parliaments and 12 bicameral parliaments. Unlike other British overseas territories, their inhabitants (who are entitled to British Overseas Territories Citizenship) have never been entitled to British citizenship. To ensure that Greece complied with the conditions set by the European troika (ECB, IMF, Commission), a 'large-scale technical assistance' from the European Commission and other member states was deployed to Greek government ministries. Other territories were fully outside EU integration. The US dollar is used on Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, while Curaçao and Sint Maarten utilize their own shared currency the Antillean guilder, and finally the currency of Aruba is the Aruban florin. On 25 June 2008, a Cooperation Treaty between the EU and OCTA was signed in Brussels. [73] This position was changed by the Cypriot accession treaty so that EU law, while still not applying in principle, applied to the extent necessary to implement a protocol attached to that treaty. The Frisian language is not an official language of the European Union. In addition to enlargement by adding new countries, the EU can also expand by having territories of member states, which are outside the EU, integrate more closely (for example in respect to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles) or by a territory of a member state which had previously seceded and then rejoined (see withdrawal below). Campione is excluded from the EU VAT area. [59] The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.[60]. Unlike members of other international organisations, the member states of the EU have agreed by treaty to shared sovereignty through the institutions of the European Union in some (but by no means all) aspects of government. The notion of multi-speed integration is anathema to some, including President Juncker, who see it as divisive to the European project and others, such as the less-integrated states, who feel they would be left behind. Just under half of the population of the sovereign base areas are Cypriots, the rest are British military personnel, support staff and their dependants. EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. The EU grew out of the European Economic Community (EEC) which was established by the Treaties of Rome in 1957. [66] They are also outside the customs union and VAT area,[10] but no customs are levied on goods exported from the Union into either Ceuta and Melilla, and certain goods originating in Ceuta and Melilla are exempt from customs charges. More than half of member states—15 out of 27—are parliamentary republics, while six states are constitutional monarchies, meaning they have a monarch although political powers are exercised by elected politicians. In addition, the British territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is partially integrated with Cyprus in the areas of agriculture, customs, indirect taxation, social security and border control. [21], The state in question would still be bound by the obligations treaties and the Council acting by majority may alter or lift such sanctions. Judgment of the Court of 15 July 1964. As a result of the Greek government-debt crisis, Greece accepted a large austerity plan including privatisations and a sell off of state assets in exchange for their bailout. The special territories divide themselves in three categories: 9 Outermost Regions (OMR) that form part of the European Union, though they benefit from derogations from some EU laws due to their geographical remoteness from mainland Europe; 13 Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) that do not form part of the European Union, though they cooperate with the EU via the Overseas Countries and Territories Association; and 10 special cases that form part of the European Union (with the exception of the Faroe Islands), though EU law make ad hoc provisions. On 24 December 2020, it was announced that The United Kingdom and The European Union had agreed a post Brexit trade deal, to take effect after the transition period expires on 1 January 2021. The European Union (EU) consists of 27 member states. The Lisbon Treaty made the first provision of a member state to leave. [16] However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012. Flaminio Costa v E.N.E.L. [10] Notwithstanding that a special permit is required to enter the peninsula and that there is a prohibition on the admittance of women, it is part of the Schengen Area. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions,[14] European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The most notable is the opt-out from the Economic and Monetary Union, the adoption of the euro as sole legal currency. Case 6-64. Its Article 51(1)(a) prescribes only that "the Union shall accord to natural and legal persons of the OCTs a treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment applicable to like natural and legal persons of any third country with whom the Union concludes or has concluded an economic integration agreement." It was excluded from the EU customs area until the end of 2019. [26] The current chairman is the Premier of Curaçao, Eugene Rhuggenaath. On 23 January 2020, the Withdrawal agreement was ratified by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and on 29 January 2020 by the European Parliament. [8][9] Their VAT is lower than the rest of Portugal, but they are not outside the EU VAT Area. The special territories of the European Union are 32 territories of EU member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union. The European Union has launched legal proceeding against the UK concerning London’s failure to recover €100 million ($119mn) of state aid which allegedly gave multinational companies based in Gibraltar an unfair advantage. EU law, including the fundamental four freedoms, applies to Åland. [15] The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, which listed them as an outermost region. [22] OCTA members are entitled to ask for EU financial support.[23]. Select your language. The remaining states have acceded in subsequent enlargements. Greece's EU accession treaty provides that Mount Athos maintains its centuries-old special legal status,[84] guaranteed by article 105 of the Greek Constitution. The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU. The Treaty of Nice included a preventive mechanism whereby the Council, acting by majority, may identify a potential breach and make recommendations to the state to rectify it before action is taken against it as outlined above. Could a ‘reverse Greenland’ arrangement keep Scotland and Northern Ireland in the EU? [21] However, the treaties do not provide any mechanism to expel a member state outright.[22]. [35] None of the islands use the euro as their currency. Acronyms have been used as a shorthand way of grouping countries by their date of accession. Subsidiarity, meaning that decisions are taken collectively if and only if they cannot realistically be taken individually, is a founding principle of the EU. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area. Today, six EU countries are refusing to ratify the treaty they signed a few years earlier and are opposed to the EU’s accession. Åland, a group of islands belonging to Finland, but with partial autonomy, located between Sweden and Finland, with a Swedish-speaking population, joined the EU along with Finland in 1995.